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History of Myanmar 2  

Saturday, November 21, 2009

National Coalition Government of the Union of Burma (NCGUB)




Prime minister
18 Dec 1990 -              Sein Win                           (b. 1944)            NLD
                            (in Manerplaw, Burma exile to Jan 1995;
                             from 1995 Washington, DC)

 ¹Not strictly a name change, just a new version to be used internationally of the same Burmese name (Pyeidaungzu Myanma Naingngandaw) that before 1989 was translated as Union of Burma; this decision was not approved by any sitting legislature and is not recognized by the U.S., also the capital Yangoon is still officially recognized by the U.S. as Rangoon. 
Territorial Disputes: Over half of Burma's population consists of diverse ethnic groups who have substantial numbers of kin in neighboring countries; Thailand must deal with Karen and other ethnic refugees, asylum seekers, and rebels, as well as illegal cross-border activities from Burma; Thailand is studying the feasibility of jointly constructing the Hatgyi Dam on the Salween River near the border with Burma; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China is reconsidering construction of 13 dams on the Salween River but energy-starved Burma with backing from Thailand remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream, despite identical regional and international protests; India seeks cooperation from Burma to keep Indian Nagaland separatists, such as the United Liberation Front of Assam, from hiding in remote Burmese Uplands; after 21 years, Bangladesh resumes talks with Burma on delimiting a maritime boundary in Jan 2008.
Party abbreviations: NLD = National League for Democracy (social-democratic, leader: Aung San Suu Kyi, won 27 May 1990 election, party then banned); TS = Taingyintha Silonenyinyutye (National Unity Party, dictatorial, pro-military, est.1990); Mil = Military; 
- Former parties: AFPFL = Anti-Fascist People's Freedom League (nationalist, anti-Japanese);NP = National Party; PMP = Poor Man's Party (Sinyetha Wunthanu); PP = Patriotic Party; PSPB = Party of the Socialist Program of Burma ("Lanzin", socialist, only legal party 1974-1988); UnP= Union Party; UP = United Party


British (Lower) Burma


 
11 May 1824                British occupy Rangoon (from Nov 1824 Pegu occupied). 
24 Feb 1826                British annex Arakan, Tenasserim, Manipur, Assam, and the  
                             coast to British India. Pegu is restored to Burma. 
20 Dec 1852                British annex Pegu. 
31 Jan 1862                Arakan, Tenasserim and Pegu are united as British 
                             ("Lower") Burma, within British India.
 1 Jan 1886                Remnant of Kingdom of Awa ("Upper Burma") annexed
 
                            to British India.
26 Feb 1886                Upper and Lower Burma united, within British India.

 Tenasserim

Military commander 
11 May 1824 - 1826         Sir Archibald Campbell             (b. 1769 - d. 1843)
Commissioners
1826 - 1828                Sir Archibald Campbell             (s.a.)
1828 - 1833                Anthony de la Combe Maingy         (b. 1795 - d. 1865)
1833 - 1843                Edmund Augustus Blundell           (b. 1804 - d. 1868)
1843 - 1844                George Broadfoot                   (b. 1807 - d. 1845)
1844 - 1846                Henry Marion Durand                (b. 1812 - d. 1871)
1846 - 1849                John Russell Colvin                (b. 1807 - d. 1857)
1849 - 1857                Archibald Bogle                    (b. 1805 - d. 1876)
Apr 1857 - Mar 1867        Albert Fytche                      (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
1858 - 1860                Henry Hopkinson (acting for Fytche)
1867 - 1872                David Brown
1872 - 1876 
               Edward Bosc Sladen                 (b. 1827 - d. 1890)
1876 - 1878                R.D. Ardagh
1879 - c.1882              A.G. Duff
c.1883 - 1886              W.C. Plant



Pegu



                                                                   to 1757                  
 

825                        (Mon) Kingdom of Talaing (Pegu) comprises part of 
                             present-day southeastern Burma and west-central Thailand. 
1044 - 1287                Under rule of Kingdom of Pagan. 
1539 - 1580                Burmese occupation. 
1551                       Burmese occupation; part of Kingdom of Awa.  
1740                       Kingdom of Pegu briefly recovers independence during 
                            the collapse of Awa. 
1757                       Re-incorporation into Awa.  
20 Dec 1852                Annexed to British India.
Kings 
1740 - 1747                Smim Htaw Buddhaketi  
1747 - 1757                Binnya Dala                        (d. 1773) 
Commissioners 
20 Dec 1852 - 31 Jan 1862  Arthur Purves Phayre               (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
c.1868                     R.D. Ardagh 

186. - 1878?               ....
1878? - 1880?              Horace Albert Browne
1880? - 1886               ....


 Arakan

                                                            to 31 Dec 1784
 

3325 BC                    Kingdom of Arakan founded according to legend. 
c.825 AD                   First recorded dynasty. 
31 Dec 1784                Conquered by Awa (Burma). 
24 Feb 1826                Annexed by Britain, part of British Lower Burma 
                             (which is part of British India). 
 1 Apr 1937                Part of separate British colony of Burma. 
 4 Jan 1948                Part of independent Burma.
Kings 
1698 - 1700                Naradipati I 
1700 - 1706                Sandawimala I               (d. 1734) 
1706 - 1710                Sandathuriya I 
1710 - 1731                Sandawizaya I               (d. 1731) 
1731 - 1734                Sandathuriya II 
1734 - 1735                Naradipati II 
1735 - 1736                Narapawara 
1737                       Sandawizaya II (Sandawizala) 
1737                       Katya 
1737 - 1742                Madarit 
1742 - 1761                Nara Apaya 
1761                       Thirithu 
1761 - 1764                Sandaparama 
1764 - 1773                Apaya 
1773 - 1777                Sandathumana 
1777                       Sandawimala II 
1777 - 1782                Sandathaditha 
1782 - 31 Dec 1784         Thamada 
31 Dec 1784 - 24 Feb 1826  annexed by Awa 
British Political Officer
1825 - 1826                Thomas Campbell Robertson          (b. 1789 - d. 1863) 
Commissioners  
1826 - 1829                George Hunter 
1829 - 1830                Charles Paton                      (d. 1830) 
1830 - 1837                Thomas Dickinson 
1837 - 1849                Archibald Bogle                    (b. 1805 - d. 1876) 
1849 - 1852                Arthur Purves Phayre               (b. 1812 - d. 1885) 
1852 - 1858                Henry Hopkinson 
 6 Dec 1858 -  9 Apr 1867  G. Verner
10 Apr 1867 - 23 Apr 1867  E.M. Ryan (1st time) (acting)
24 Apr 1867 - 24 Oct 1872  J.F.J. Stevenson (1st time)
25 Oct 1872 - 23 Jan 1873  H.N. Davies (1st time) (acting)
23 Jan 1873 - Dec 1873     J.F.J. Stevenson (2nd time)
Dec 1873 -  7 Feb 1876     E.M. Ryan (2nd time)
 8 Feb 1876 - 29 Feb 1876  H.N. Davies (2nd time) (acting)
 1 Mar 1876 - 13 Sep 1878  
Edward Bosc Sladen (1st time)      (b. 1827 - d. 1890)
14 Sep 1878 - 10 Dec 1878  W.C. Plant (1st time) (acting)
11 Dec 1878 -  6 Jun 1880  G.J.S. Hodgkinson
 7 Jun 1880 - 22 Jun 1880  W.C. Plant (2nd time) (acting)
23 Jun 1880 - 31 Aug 1880  W. de Courcy Ireland (acting)
 1 Sep 1880 - 26 Oct 1880  G.J.S. Hodgkinson
27 Oct 1880 - 12 Aug 1883 
 Edward Bosc Sladen (2nd time)      (s.a.)
13 Aug 1883 - 13 Nov 1883  G.A. Strover (acting)
14 Nov 1883 -  3 Nov 1885  
Edward Bosc Sladen (3rd time)      (s.a.)
 4 Nov 1885 - 17 Dec 1885  J.K. Macrue
18 Dec 1885 - 26 Jul 1886  G.D. Burgess


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