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History of Myanmar  

Friday, November 20, 2009

ကၽြန္ေတာ္တို ့ၿမန္မာႏိုင္ငံေတာ္ႀကီး၇ဲ ့သမိုင္းေႀကာင္း
ကၽြန္ေတာ္၇ွာေတြ ့ထားလို ့Share လိုက္ပါတယ္။
၇ွာေတြ ့ထားတာေတြ၇ွိေတာ့၇ွိေသးတယ္ေနာ္။
တေၿဖးေၿဖးတင္ေပးပါ့မယ္။
ေလာေလာဆယ္ေတာ့ဒီေလာက္နဲ ့ပဲေႀကနပ္လိုက္ႀကအံုးေနာ္။


Chronology

1364                       Kingdom of Awa founded.
1559                       Internal dissension shatters 
                           kingdom of Aw and 
                           numerous petty states 
                           are established
                             (Toungoo, Pegu, etc.).
Apr 1752                   Independence of Kingdom 
                           of Awa recovered.
1769 -  1 Jan 1886         Awa nominally a tributary 
                           of the Chinese Empire.
31 Dec 1784                Arakan annexed by Burma.
11 May 1824                British occupy Rangoon 
                          (from Nov 1824, Pegu 
                             is occupied).
24 Feb 1826                Arakan, Tenasserim, Manipur, 
                           Assam, and the coastline annexed 
                           to British India; Pegu 
                           restored to Burma.
20 Dec 1852                Pegu annexed to British India.
31 Jan 1862                Arakan, Tenasserim, and Pegu are 
                           united as British ("Lower") Burma
                           within British India.
 1 Jan 1886                Remnant of Kingdom of Awa 
                           ("Upper Burma")annexed to 
                           British India.
26 Feb 1886                Upper and Lower Burma united as 
                           Burma, within British India.
 1 Apr 1937                Burma a separate British colony.
 1 Aug 1942 -  3 May 1945  Japanese occupation 
                           (in Tenasserim from Dec 1941)
Dec 1942 - 1945            Thailand occupies part of 
                           Shan States[Kyaington and Mongpan] 
                           which are annexed on 1 Aug 1943.
 1 Aug 1943 -  3 May 1945  Republic of Burma 
 4 Jan 1948                Independence (Union of Burma).
 4 Jan 1974                Socialist Republic of 
                           the Union of Burma.
23 Sep 1988                Union of Burma
18 Jun 1989                Union of Myanmar¹
 
Note: Burmese names are often seen prefixed with U (i.e., U Nu, U Ne Win).
This simply means Mr. and therefore this prefix is not included in this record.
 
Kings

Apr 1752 - 11 May 1760     Alaungphaya                        (b. 1714 - d. 1760)
11 May 1760 - 28 Nov 1763  Naungdawkyi                        (b. 1734 - d. 1763)
29 Nov 1763 - 10 Jun 1776  Hsinbyushin                        (b. 1736 - d. 1776)
10 Jun 1776 -  5 Feb 1782  Singu Min                          (b. 1756 - d. 1782)
 6 Feb 1782 - 11 Feb 1782  Maung Maung                        (b. 1763 - d. 1782)
11 Feb 1782 -  5 Jun 1819  Bodawphaya                         (b. 1745 - d. 1819)
 5 Jun 1819 - 15 Apr 1837  Bagyidaw                           (b. 1784 - d. 1846)
15 Apr 1837 - 17 Nov 1846  Tharawadi Min                      (b. 1787 - d. 1846)
17 Nov 1846 - 18 Feb 1853  Pagan Min                          (b. 1811 - d. 1880)
18 Feb 1853 -  1 Oct 1878  Mindon Min                         (b. 1808 - d. 1878)
 1 Oct 1878 - 29 Nov 1885  Thibaw Min                         (b. 1859 - d. 1916)
29 Nov 1885 -  1 Jan 1886  Hlutdaw (National Council) 
 
 
Chief Commissioners 

31 Jan 1862 - 16 Feb 1867  Arthur Purves Phayre               (b. 1812 - d. 1885)
16 Feb 1867 - 18 Apr 1871  Albert Fytche                      (b. 1820 - d. 1891)
18 Apr 1871 - 14 Apr 1875  Ashley Eden                        (b. 1831 - d. 1887)
14 Apr 1875 - 30 Mar 1878  Augustus Rivers Thompson           (b. 1829 - d. 1890)
                             (acting to 30 Apr 1877)
30 Mar 1878 -  2 Jul 1880  Charles Umpherton Aitchinson       (b. 1832 - d. 1896)
 2 Jul 1880 -  2 Mar 1883  Charles Edward Bernard (1st time)  (b. 1837 - d. 1901)
                             (acting to 4 Apr 1882)
 2 Mar 1883 - 25 Sep 1886  Sir Charles Haukes Todd            (b. 1835 - d. 1915)
                             Crosthwaite (1st time) (acting)
25 Sep 1886 - 12 Mar 1887  Charles Edward Bernard (2nd time)  (s.a.)
12 Mar 1887 - 10 Dec 1890  Sir Charles Haukes Todd            (s.a.)
                             Crosthwaite (2nd time)
10 Dec 1890 -  3 Apr 1895  Alexander Mackenzie                (b. 1842 - d. 1910)
 3 Apr 1895 -  1 May 1897  Frederick William Richard Fryer    (b. 1845 - d. 1922)


 Lieutenant governors 

 1 May 1897 -  4 Apr 1903  Frederick William Richard Fryer    (s.a.)
 4 Apr 1903 -  9 May 1905  Sir Hugh Shakespaer Barnes         (b. 1853 - d. 1940)
 9 May 1905 - 19 May 1910  Sir Herbert Thirkell White         (b. 1855 - d. 1931)
19 May 1910 - 28 Oct 1915  Sir Harvey Adamson                 (b. 1854 - d. 1941)
15 May 1913 -  1 Nov 1913  Sir George Shaw
                             (acting for Adamson)

28 Oct 1915 - 22 Sep 1917  Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler        (b. 1869 - d. 1938)
                             (1st time)
22 Sep 1917 - 15 Feb 1918  Walter Francis Rice (acting)       (b. 18.. - d. 1941)
15 Feb 1918 - 21 Dec 1922  Sir Reginald Henry Craddock        (b. 1864 - d. 1937)
21 Dec 1922 -  2 Jan 1923  Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler        (s.a.)
                             (2nd time)


Governors 

 2 Jan 1923 - 20 Dec 1927  Sir Spencer Harcourt Butler        (s.a.)
20 Dec 1927 - 20 Dec 1932  Sir Charles Alexander Innes        (b. 1874 - d. 1959)
28 Oct 1930 -  2 Aug 1931  Saya San (Ya Gyaw)                 (b. 1876 - d. 1931)
                             (self-proclaimed 'king', in rebellion)
20 Dec 1932 -  8 May 1936  Sir Hugh Landsdowne Stephenson     (b. 1871 - d. 1941)
 8 May 1936 -  6 May 1941  Sir Archibald Douglas Cochrane     (b. 1885 - d. 1958)
 6 May 1941 - 31 Aug 1946  Sir Reginald Hugh Dorman-Smith     (b. 1899 - d. 1977)
                             (May 1942 - Oct 1945 in exile at Simla, India) 
 

Japanese military commanders 

20 Apr 1942 - 18 Mar 1943  Iida Shojiro                       (b. 1888 - d. 1980)
18 Mar 1943 - 30 Aug 1944  Masakazu Kawabe                    (b. 1886 - d. 1965)
30 Aug 1944 - 15 Aug 1945  Heitaro Kimura                     (b. 1888 - d. 1948)


Head of the Burmese Administration 

 1 Aug 1942 -  1 Aug 1943  Ba Maw                             (b. 1893 - d. 1977)
 

Chief of State (Adipati) 

 1 Aug 1943 -  3 May 1945  Ba Maw                             (s.a.)


Allied Military governors 

 1 Jan 1944 - Oct 1945     Louis Mountbatten,                 (b. 1900 - d. 1979)
                             Duke of Mountbatten
Oct 1945 - 31 Aug 1946     Sir Hubert Elvin Rance             (b. 1898 - d. 1974) 


 Governor 

31 Aug 1946 -  4 Jan 1948  Sir Hubert Elvin Rance             (s.a.) 
 

Presidents 

 4 Jan 1948 - 16 Mar 1952  Saw Shwe Thaik                     (b. 1896 - d. 1962)  AFPFL
16 Mar 1952 - 13 Mar 1957  Ba U                               (b. 1887 - d. 1963)  AFPFL
13 Mar 1957 -  2 Mar 1962  Win Maung                          (b. 1916 - d. 1989)  AFPFL
 2 Mar 1962 -  9 Nov 1981  Ne Win (Shu Maung)                 (b. 1911 - d. 2002)  Mil;
                            (chairman Revolutionary Council to 2 Mar 1974)         1972 PSPB
 9 Nov 1981 - 25 Jul 1988  San Yu                             (b. 1918 - d. 1996)  PSPB
25 Jul 1988 - 12 Aug 1988  Sein Lwin                          (b. 1924 - d. 2004)  PSBP
12 Aug 1988 - 19 Aug 1988  Aye Ko (acting)                                         PSBP
19 Aug 1988 - 18 Sep 1988  Maung Maung                        (b. 1925 - d. 1994)  PSBP 


Chairmen of the State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) 

18 Sep 1988 - 23 Apr 1992  Saw Maung                          (b. 1928 - d. 1997)  Mil
23 Apr 1992 - 15 Nov 1997  Than Shwe                          (b. 1933)            Mil 


Chairman of the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) 

15 Nov 1997 -              Than Shwe                          (s.a.)               Mil



Deputy Chairmen of the Executive Council 
 
 1 Apr 1937 - 20 Feb 1939  Ba Maw (1st time)                  (s.a.)               PMP
20 Feb 1939 - Sep 1940     Maung Pu                           (b. 1881 - d. 19..)  UP 
Sep 1940 - 19 Jan 1942     Saw                                (b. 1900 - d. 1948)  NP
19 Jan 1942 - Mar 1942     Sir Paw Tun                        (b. 1883 - d. 1953)  PP
Mar 1942 - May 1942        Thakin Tun Oke                                          Mil 
                            (Head of the Central Government)
May 1942 -  3 Jun 1942     Vacant
 3 Jun 1942 -  3 May 1945  Ba Maw (2nd time)                  (s.a.)
 3 May 1945 - 28 Sep 1946  Vacant
28 Sep 1946 - 19 Jul 1947  Aung San                           (b. 1915 - d. 1947)  AFPFL
24 Jul 1947 -  4 Jan 1948  Nu                                 (b. 1907 - d. 1995)  AFPFL 


Prime ministers
 
 4 Jan 1948 - 12 Jun 1956  Nu (1st time)                      (s.a.)               AFPFL
12 Jun 1956 -  1 Mar 1957  Ba Swe                             (b. 1915 - d. 1987)  AFPFL
 1 Mar 1957 - 29 Oct 1958  Nu (2nd time)                      (s.a.)               AFPFL
29 Oct 1958 -  4 Apr 1960  Ne Win (1st time)                  (s.a.)               Mil
 4 Apr 1960 -  2 Mar 1962  Nu (3rd time)                      (s.a.)               UnP
 2 Mar 1962 -  4 Mar 1974  Ne Win (2nd time)                  (s.a.)               Mil/PSBP
 4 Mar 1974 - 29 Mar 1977  Sein Win                           (b. 1929)            Mil/PSPB
29 Mar 1977 - 26 Jul 1988  Maung Maung Kha                    (b. 1920 - d. 1995)  Mil/PSPB
26 Jul 1988 - 18 Sep 1988  Tun Tin                            (b. 1930)            Mil/PSBP
21 Sep 1988 - 23 Apr 1992  Saw Maung                          (s.a.)               Mil
24 Apr 1992 - 25 Aug 2003  Than Shwe                          (s.a.)               Mil
25 Aug 2003 - 19 Oct 2004  Khin Nyunt                         (b. 1939)            Mil
19 Oct 2004 - 12 Oct 2007  Soe Win                            (b. 1949 - d. 2007)  Mil
18 May 2007 -              Thein Sein                         (b. 1945)            Mil
                             (acting [for Soe Win to 2 Oct 2007] to 24 Oct 2007)



British Residents (at Ava; from 1857 Mandalay)
 
Oct 1796 - Jul 1797        Hiram Cox
1829 - 1838                Henry Burney                       (b. 1792 - d. 1845)
1838? - 1840               William C. Macleod                 (b. 1805 - d. 1880)
1840 - 1862                Vacant
1862 - 1864                Clement Williams                   (b. 1834 - d. 1879)
1864 - 1869                Edward Bosc Sladen                 (b. 1827 - d. 1890)
Jan 1868 - 1868            Manook (acting for Sladen)
1869 - 1872                MacMahon
1872 - 1875                Stroven
1875 - 1878                Duncan
1878 - 13 Jun 1879         Robert Barkley Shaw                (b. 1839 - d. 1879)

1879                       Horace Browne (acting)
1879 -  8 Oct 1879         E.L. St. Barbe

 8 Oct 1879 -  1 Jan 1886  Vacant


Agents in Bhamo

1869 - 1872                Stroven
1872 - 1873                Spearman
1873 - 1877                Cooke
1877 - 1878                Cooper
1878 - 1879                
E.L. St. Barbe 



Japanese Superintendents 
 
15 Mar 1942 - 24 Jul 1942  Nasu Yoshio
25 Jul 1942 - 30 Nov 1942  Isayama Haruki                     (b. 1894 - d. 1990)
 1 Dec 1942 -  1 Aug 1943  Naka Eitaro



Supreme Adviser (Japanese Proconsul) 
 
1942 - 1945                Gotara Ogawa


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